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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Heft 1 - Jahrgang 1 (2013)
Fordismus
Herausgegeben von Peter-Paul Bänziger


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Peter-Paul Bänziger: Einführung: Der Fordismus aus körpergeschichtlicher Perspektive
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Introduction: Fordism from the Perspective of Body History.
The introduction gives a brief overview of the subject of this issue as well as of the individual articles. Particularly, it points to three aspects: First, there is a need for a reevaluation of the concept of Fordism in order to come up to the "consumerist productivism" that was established in the twentieth century. This contributes, second, to a differentiation of the history of productive and consuming bodies within this period. In this regard, some of the articles stress that both, hegemonic discourses and forms of (re-)appropriation and autonomous productions, must be taken into consideration.

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Peter-Paul Bänziger: Fordistische Körper in der Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts – eine Skizze
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Fordist Bodies in the History of the Twentieth Century – an Outline.
Over the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the concept of Fordism. It is no longer only used to describe a specific form of the organization of production. Rather, scholars stress the importance of a broader understanding. In my article, I pick up these discussions by showing, first, that a concept of Fordism only makes sense if the effects of the emerging consumer societies are seriously taken into account. Second, I argue in favor of a body history of Fordism, giving rise to the question as to what extent we might be able to speak of "Fordist bodies". With reference to debates about periodization, third, I discuss how such an account fits into the history of industrialized societies since the late 19th century. By focusing on the discussion about post-Fordism, I argue that there is certainly some evidence for a "break" in the course of the 1960s and 1970s. Particularly from the perspective of body history, however, there are also indications that a reevaluation of the Fordist features of late-20th century societies is also called for.

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Astrid Kusser: Arbeitsfreude und Tanzwut im (Post-)Fordismus
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Work Enthusiasm and Dance Mania in (Post)Fordism.
Black dances became popular in Europe and the United States not because they were exotic or different, but because they enabled a critical attitude towards (self-)exploitation under modern regimes of mass labor. While the capacity of bodies to communicate and cooperate freely was increasingly supervised and instrumentalized on the shopfloor by disciplinary arrangements and racist discourses, people reappropriated it on the dancefloor in radically experimental and non-instrumentalist ways. The aesthetics and techniques of black diaspora dances constituted a vast repertoire of polemical movements and attitudes questioning the idea of self-liberation through work. Today, this history offers new perspectives on post-Fordist subjectivities and their work ethics. By assembling a diverse body of sources from early cinema to the 1980s Hollywood dance movies, from picture postcards to popular scientific publications and caricatures, the article shows that dancing was not the "other" of work in modern times.

Noyan Dinçkal: "Sport ist die körperliche und seelische Selbsthygiene des arbeitenden Volkes": Arbeit, Leibesübungen und Rationalisierungskultur in der Weimarer Republik
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“Sport is the Self-Hygiene of the Body and Soul of the Working Class”: Work, Gymnastics, and the Culture of Rationalization in the Weimar Republic
This article argues that, during the Weimar period, physical exercises were linked to debates about a "human economy." Especially in the aftermath of the First World War, physical exercises became a vital component of population policies aiming at the restitution of the productive capacities of the population. Within this framework, representatives of sports physiology and psychotechnics interpreted sports as a kind of work. The goal was to improve the mental and physical performance of workers in the interest of efficiency, job performance, and the national economy. This article, focusing on interactions between sport sciences, work physiology, and debates on efficiency, places the objectives and discourses of these debates and the history of sport in the 1920s within the context of the Weimar rationalization movement.

Karin Harrasser: Sensible Prothesen. Medien der Wiederherstellung von Produktivität
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Sensitive Prostheses. Media of the Restitution of Productivity.
The paper discusses to what extent prosthetic research in the 1920s can be interpreted as being related to specific modes of body politics: What are the concepts of the body and its movements in prosthetic research and engineering? How did prosthetic research itself contribute to the reworking of body-concepts, and does this involve a shift from disciplinary towards regulative and cybernetic approaches that include psychological considerations? The argument is developed with reference to contemporary examples that outline the astounding compatibility of economic and military body regimes. The article argues that biopolitical, governmental, and economic concerns are crucial features of the epistemology and the design of prostheses.

Patrick Kury: Vom physiologischen Stress zum Prinzip "Lebensqualität": Lennart Levi und der Wandel des Stresskonzepts um 1970
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From Physiological Stress to the Principle of “Quality of Life”: Lennart Levi and the Transformation of the Concept of Stress around 1970.
In the mid-seventies, a psychosocial concept of stress evolved in Scandinavia and the German-speaking countries. The Swedish endocrinologist and social medic Lennart Levi played a crucial role in this process. In 1959 he founded the (now famous) Stress Research Laboratory based at the Karolinska Institute. The latter was designated a WHO collaboration center for research and training dealing with psychosocial health. The same year, Levi also published an introduction to psychosomatic medicine, which was translated into German five years later. This book, "Stress: Body, Soul, and Illness," became a milestone in German research on stress. The paper analyses the pioneering role of Levi in establishing stress research in German-speaking countries, and explores the relevance of his body concept in the late Fordist period.

Simon Graf: Leistungsfähig, attraktiv, erfolgreich, jung und gesund: Der fitte Körper in post-fordistischen Verhältnissen
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Productive, Attractive, Successful, Young, and Healthy: The Fit Body in the Postfordist World.
In the last forty years, fitness has evolved into a popular sportive practice that has been accompanied by fundamental social and economic changes. Not surprisingly, the fit body is therefore often characterized as a post-Fordist body. Assuming that the fit body represents the concurrence of being fit and keeping fit, the article describes the hegemonic position of the fit body in post-Fordist conditions. Furthermore, with reference to the example of the Lebensreformbewegung ("life reform movement"), it outlines a non-linear and partial genealogy of the fit body. In so doing, it points to the continuities and transformations between concepts of the "fit" body in Fordist and post-Fordist discourses and practices.